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LOCATION OF KAMBOJA

kamboja-image

LOCATION OR IDENTIFICATION OF ANCIENT KAMBOJA COUNTRY/COUNTRIES.

PART V

FEW BRIEFS:

(1)There was an ancient Kamboja country located in the Pamir and Badakshan region Central Asia. This has been called the Kamboja Mahajanapada of our Buddhist texts. (Anguttara Nikaya, P.T.S. I. 213; 4. 252, 256, 261).

(2)There was another Kamboja country located in the Doabs of Jaxartes and Oxus rivers and this Kamboja land comprised east sogdian and Fargana territories. This Kamboja country was geographically separated from the above refered to Kamboja country. This is our ancient Param Kamboja country to which our ancient Sanskrit literature such as Mahabharat has specifically referred in several of its Shlokas. (Mahabharata II.27.23-25; 7/23/42-44; 10/13/1-2; 8/38/13-14 etc ). The people and the horses of Param Kamboja country had also participated in the great battle of Mahabharata.

(3) There were some clannish Kamboja republics lying to the south of Hindukush also. Mahabharata (Narayanashach Gopala: Kambojana -cha-ye-ganhas, MBH 7/91/41) The most important of which was in one in the Rajauri area (Rajapura) in south-east Kashmir (MBH VII-4-5). The another was in Kunar and Swat valleys known as Asvakayans and Asvayans Kambojas. These were the Assakenois and Aspasios of the classical writers (Arrian In Mcgrindle, Strabo, Curtius in Mcgrindle, Diodorus in Mcgrindle, Plutarch in Mcgrindle). Dr E. Lammotte, Dr K. P. Jayswal, Dr Ryachaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee, Dr Buddha Parkash, Dr Mcgrindle, Dr L. M. Joshi, Dr Fauja Singh, Dr Jya Lal etc have identified the Assakenois as the Asvakayan (Ashvak) and Aspasios as the Asvayan (Aspan) Kambojas. This Kapisha land has been called the' land of horses' (Kambojo Assan-Ayatanam: ref: Sumangavilasini, Vol I, p 121) and has been refered to in several Pali Texts like Sumanangalavilasini. (Vol I, p 121, also ref to Dictionary of Pali Proper names (DPPN), I, 526 cf: MBH., VI.90.3; Brahmananda, II, 2.16.16; Visuddhimaga (P.T.S) 332; Jataka no 504 ). Note that this above `Assanam' of the Pali texts is same as the Asvayan/Asvakayan of the Ashtaadhyai and other Sanskrit literature.The Pali term `Assanam' and the Sanskrit terms `Ashvakayan'/'Asvayan' applied in reference to the Kamboja country and people literally means `of horses', `relating to horses', `horse raising', `horse breeding' etc. The Kamboja country has always been noted for its finest breed of horses and Kamboja people as the best horse breeders/raisers/keepers. MBH 12/101/5 calls these Kambojas as Ashv-Yudh-Kushlah (i.e. expert cavaliers) as stated by Dr Jayswal (Hindu Polity, Constitutional History of Ancient India (Part I & II) Dr K. P. Jayswal) .

See evidence below:

Tatha Kamboja Mathuramabhitashach ye/ Aitey ashv-yudh-kshlaha dakshinatayaasirchaminh:// (MBH 12/103/5)

According to numerous scholars including Dr Mcgrindle, Louis Bishop etc etc, the modern name Afganistan and its people is evidently originated from these Ashvakayan/Asvayan (Ashvak/Aspa) of Sanskrit and Assaknois/Aspasios of the classical writers

Ashvakayan == >Ashvakan == > Avkan == > avgan == >Afgan == > Afghan

(ref: Mcgrindle in Magasthenes and Arrian, p 180, The Dictionary of the Greek and Roman Geography, Vol I, 1843/1966, p 243; The Geographical Dictionary of Ancient and Medieval India by N. D. Dey, Itihaas Parvesh by Dr J. C. Vidyalankar).

These very clans of the Assakenois/Aspasio Kambojas had faced the Macedonian king Alexandra at Masasga and Ornos, and Andaka forts. (Ref: Political History Of Ancient India, 1996, p 211-233, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee).

There was yet another Kamboja republic in the north of Kandhara and which has been doucumented by Shar-I-Kuna Inscriptins of king Ashoka found in Kandhar (Ref: Ashoka's Shar-I-Kuna Inscriptions, Arahmaic version; also R.E. XIII). This Kamboja Republic was neighbors to Archotian Yavanas (Yona-Kambojesu. Ref: Ashoka's R.E. XIII).

All these above noted Kamboja Republics were established by those Kamboja clans, who, with passage of time, had crossed the Hindukush and settled to south of it and had colonized these regions.

In the later times, several tribes of the Kambojas of Badakshan/Pamir and Fargana were displaced from their homeland as was the case with Sakas of the Trans-jaxatesian lands. Numerous Kambojas clans had joined the Saka movements under pressure from Ta-Yuches (2ndc BC) and had spread via Herat to western Afghanistan/and eastern Iran (Seistan/Drangiana) and later to UP, Sindhu, Sauvir, Malva and Gujrat/Kathawad areas of north-west India (India and the World 1964, p 154, 71, Dr Buddha Parkash, India and Central Asia, p 117, Dr P. C. Bagchi, Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, pp 297-309, p 310, Dr J. L. Kamboj) and it all happened in 2nd and 1ist c BC. From Gujrat/Kathiawad, many Kambojas moved further on to Sri Lanka and established their principalities in Sri Lanka (History of Cylone, Vol I, part I, p 88, Dr S. Paranavitana). There is echo of their migration to Godavari in Andhra Pardesh and Karnatka..The famous `Kamboja Raja Katha (Kathalu)', a balladic story of the great times, doings and achievements of the legendary `Kamboja Raja' is still sung on cultural occasions in Andhra Pardesh. Please talk to any Andhra people about Kamboja Rakja Katha and you will find the truth.

KAMBOJA COUNTRY IN ASSAM/BURMA (?).

From Pamirs, some clans of Kamboja moved to Tibet. They established their colony in east Tibet. According to Dr P. C. Bagchi and many other scholars, the Khambas province of east Tibet still carries the relic of Kamboja name in it. There are also warlike people called Khambata living in east Tibet. This Khamat again reminds us of Kamboja. Dr Foucher has stated that Tibet was the ancient Kamboja country and the Tibetean language was the ancient Kamboja language (Iconographie bouddhique p 134). According to Sir Charles Eliot also, the Kambojas were Tibeteans. (Hinduism and Buddhism, Vol I, p 268). Dr G. G. Gokhale also affixes his Kamboja in the Tibetan land (Ancient India, 1952 by Dr G. G. Gokhale). Dr V. A. Smith also seems to place Kambojas in Tibet and the mountains of Hindukush (Early History of India., p 184). According Nepali Pt B. H. Hodgson, the name Kambojadesha applies to Tibet. This fact has also been supported by two MSS (No 7763, and 7777) described in the Catalogues of Sanskrit and Prakrit MSS in the library of India Office, Vol II., part II; History of Bengal, I 191, by Dr R. C. Majumdar, Distt Gazetteer (Rajashahi), 1915, p 26, Some Historical Aspects of the Inscriptions of Bengal, p 342, f.n. 1 by Dr B. C. Sen). Dr S. K. Chatterjee and Dr R. P. Chanda have also accepted the above opinion of Dr Foucher and call Tibet or its border lands as the home of Kambojas who had later invaded Bengal and wrested it from Pala kings ( History of Origin and Development of the Bengali Language, p 69 Dr S. K. Chatterjee; I.P.A.S.B (NS) Vol II, p 619 dr R. P. Chanda). Thus according to these scholars, Kambojas who had wrested east Bengal from the Palas, in fact, were Tibetan Kambojas.

Dr Serge Thion (France) states: "...There was also a Yonaka country in Northern Thailand, and Michael Vickery in his Ph D. thesis has shown that name 'Kamboja' has been used by the Burmese and the Thai chronicles to name regions which were not at all in the Khmer realm (Cambodia After Angorwat, the Chronicle Evidence for 14th-16th c AD, Ph. D. Thesis, Michael Vickory Yale University, U.S.A. p. 375) ". (Ref quoted by: Dr Serge Thion, (France), No 20, Yunan Thai Project newsletter March 1993, Department of Anthropolgy, Reasearch School of Pacific Studies, Australian National University, Australia).

Still further, Buddhist text Sasanvamsa (P.T.S.) relates numerous incidences and legends in the history of Burma with the Kamboja people. This also confirms the existence of a Kamboja country near Burma. Sasanvamsa makes a mention of a duel between a very famous Kamboja Pahlwan or wrestler (Kambhoj-kul i.e. one born of Kamboja kul or Vamsa) and aother well known wrestler called Samakutak. The Kamboja wrestler or Pahlwan was stated to be living in Ratnapura, in Burma.

Ratnapurnagre mallkammey atichheko addhiko aiko Kambhoj-kulo atithi (Sasanvamsa (P.T.S.) p 83).

This again shows that Kamboja people had migrated to east India and had founded some principality or colony or country near upper Burma. It is imposible though to precisely fix the date of their arrival in Burma. But it is supposed that the Kambojas must have colonized this principality somewhere in Assam/Burma before they had founded a Kamboja kingdom in Mekong valley. (Dr Jiya Lal). The Yonaka and Kamboja countries mentioned in the Sasanvamsa are all located in east India. Haribhunj was another name for Yona country.. From the above information, it becomes very obvious that the Kambojas and Yonakas of the Sasanvamsa were located somewhere in the north of Burma, somewhere between Assam and Bengal. Undoubtedly, this the Kamboja located and identified by Harvey on north or north-east of Lusha Hills in Upper Burma. (History of Burma, p 109, f.n.1, Harvey).

According to Dr R. C. Majumdar, in the north of Brahma, near the Yunnan and Azechhwan regions, there was a also Gandhara Indian colony nearby. Brahma Purana (53/16)also a mentions Kamboja country in the east India in between Assam and east Bengal.(cf: Geographical Data in Early Puranas, 1972, p 186, Dr M./ R. Singh). Pobably, the Kamboja of the Brahma Purana (53/16) was a Kamboja principality/colony in this region, near Pragjyotisha and Tamarlipitikas. These were probably the Kambojas who figure in the history of Bengal...says Dr M. R. Singh . (ref: A Critical Study of the Goegraphical Data in the Early Puranas, p 168 by Dr M. R. Singh; Some Tantric Texts studied in Ancient Kambuja by Dr P. C. Bagchi, History and Culture of Indian People, Imperial Kanauj, p 323).

The Tathagata Sutra of the Ratnakuta collection, a Buddist text (Chinese recension) calls Kamboja as Kieu-feu. The Tibetan version of this Buddhist text ( Pag Sham Jon Zang) translates the same Kamboja as Kampoche or Kampotes. (Political And Social Movements in Ancient Punjab, pp 254-55, Dr Buddha Parkash). The Tibetan text `Pag Sam Jon Zang' mentions a country named `Kampoche' or `Kampotes' on the north and north-east of Lushai hills in Assam. Burmese Chronicles also mention Kamboja as Kampuchih and talk of a Kampuchih country in upper Burmah. In some Chinese chronicles the Kamboja name appears as Kaofu or Kambu. All these evidences point at a Kamboja country located some where in Assam/Burma.

According to Dr P. C. Bagchi and many other scholars, this Tibetan Kamboja was colonized by migrant branch of the Central Asian nomadic people called Kambojas. Says Dr Baghchi: "Kambojas were a nomadic tribe of Central Asia. One of their branch had crossed Hindukush in ancient times and had spread into India from the Punjab, Rajasthan. They had so much mixed up, socially and culturally, with the local population that it is now very difficult to identify them from the rest of the population. It appears that another branch of these nomadic people had entered east Tibet and Mekong valley (Cambodia). With this assumption, we can straightway find the explanation as to why Mekong valley aree of Indo-China was called Kambuja. We can also find the trace of their name in the Kambas/Khambas province in east Tibet. There are also said to a Kambho/Kambha/Khampa tribe (mixed Mongolian/Aryan tribe) in Tibet. Probably, from this very place in Tibet, these people descended upon east Bengal in 8/9 c AD and wrested north-east Bengal from the Pala kings. Some of their clans moved further on and finally landed in the Mekong valley in Indo-China (Cambodia)". (Ref: India and Central Asia p 117 by Dr P. C. Bagchi).

In 12th c AD, we hear of a great Sangha of Buddhist Bhikshus located in Laitak in upper burma or Shaan country. This Buddhist Sangha was known as Kamboja Sangha . (Harvey, History of Burma, p 109, f.n. 1). This Kamboja Sangha was established by the Buddhist Bhikhus from this Kamboja country of north -east India.

There also stands an old palace, called Kambowja Palace in Rangoon, built in Chinese style and architecture (Historical and Cultural Dictionary of Asia, S. No, 4, p 99, by J. M. Maring, E. G. Maring).

This evidence undoubtedly shows the foot prints of the Kambojas, in the east India, in Tibet/Assam/Burma somewhere.

VIEWS OF DR. R. R. DIWARKAR ON TIBETAN KAMBOJAS. "In course of his military compaign, pala king Devapala is said to have reached Kamboja. The Kambojas of ancient India are known to have been living in north-west, but in this period, they are known to have been living in the north-east India also, and very probably, it was meant Tibet. Thus Devapala might have come into conflict with these Tibetan Kambojas, there is nothing surprising in this because Tibetan sources claim that their kings Khri-Srong-Ide-Btson and his son Mu-Tag-Btsan-Po subdued India and forced Dharamapala to submit. Devapala may have also clashed with them and defeated them" (Bihar Through the Ages, G. Ed. R. R. Diwarkar, 1958, p 312).

KAMBOJAS IN BENGAL: Interestingly we also find Kambojas in the North-East Bengal during 9/11 centuries AD ( A Kamboja king of Gauda i.e Kambojanvayaj per Dinaj Pore Pillar Inscriptions and generation after generation of Kamboja-vams-tilak kings per Irda Tamrapatra in North East Bengal). As stated above, the Brahma Purana (ref: 53/16) also makes a mention of a Kamboja country in between Bengal/Assam and Burma somewhere. This country find mention as Kampochih or Kampotes in the Tibetan Pag-Sam-Jon-Zang text and Burmese chronicles. (Dr Jya Lal, Dr P. C. Baghchi, R. C. Majumdar, A. D. Pusalkar, DR M. R. Singh, Dr Vickory Michael ) But this Kamboja was an eastern Principality of the Pamirian/Yarkant Kambojans who had landed into Tibetan land after first c AD.

KAMBOJA IN WEST INDIA SOMEWHERE IN GUJRAT/KATHIAWAD (??):

Several Indologists opine that during Saka displacements of 2nd c BC undrer pressure prom Ta Yueh Chih tribe , several Kamboj clans from central Asia (modern N.E. Afghanistan/Tajikstan/Pamir etc) also appear to have joined them and enterd north west India, spread and settled into the Sindhu, Sauvir, Gujrat, Saurashtra, Maharashtra, Malva, Uttar Pardesh and further even to the south India during 3rd/2nd/1ist c BC and later centuries. (see Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, pp 310, 296-309, Dr Jiya Lal, Delhi University,; cf India and the World, 1964, p154, Dr Buddha Parkash). Several ancient Sanskrit writings and some other physical evidence strongly points towards Kambojas' presence in the Gujrat/Saurashtra and southern part of the Indian subcontinent.

YUE-CHE/SAKA/KAMBOJA DISPLACEMENT FROM CENTRAL ASIA( HISTORICAL BACK GROUND):

Refer to: PART I of the following website for details if interested: http://indiaculture.net/talk/messages/128/9177.html?1004799710

IN SUMMARY: KAMBOJA PRINCIPALITIES IN SAURASHTRA/GUJARAT:

All the above those references suggest a Kamboja country somewhere in Gujrat region. We have Kambhi Kasatrya caste in Suarashtra. Also we have place names like Kamboi, Khambavata, Kambhey, Kambhu, Gambu, Kambarijavi etc.. Based on these facts many writers suppose that these are the strong signatures of showing the migration of ancient Kambojas from Central Asia who had joined Sakas in their mass movement (under pressure from Ta-Yuches), first towards Herat or Aria and then towards Seistan (Drangiana) and finally towards SW India (1ist c BC) and who later had spread in Malva/Saurashtra/Sauvira in large numbers during 2/1c BC. A Kumbhi caste also found in Maharashtra. There seems a further migration of these people from Saurashtra/Maharashtra to Godacvari/Andhra in later times. The western Kshatrapas, especially the Kshahrat Kashatrapas have been identified by some scholars with the Kambojas. (Ancient India, Vol III., pp 94, 125, Dr T. L. Shah). These western Kashatrapas or Kshahrat Kashatrapas are regarded as the rulers of Malwa and Gujrat/Kathawad. There were at least 20 Kashatrapies in the Malwa/Gujrat areas and some of these must have been Kamboja rulers. As seen above, these Kambojas represented the Kambojas who had joined the Sakas tribes in their westwards movement towards Gujrat and Malwa, during 2nd/1 ist c BC. These Kamboja Kashatrapas, for obvious reasons, had adopted the Saka social, political customs, styles, language as well as the royal titles as rulers of Malwa/Gujrat. Western Kshatrapas had ruled Gujrat/Malwa for a long period of 300 years (Ancient India, 1971, p 121 by Dr. R. C. Majumdar).

A KAMBOJA COUNTRY (OR KAMBOJA PRINICIPALITY) IN SOUTH INDIA??

ON THE OTHER HAND, the Garuda Purana which was composed comparatively in later times also suggests a Kamboj country in the neighborhood of Ashmak, Pulind, Jimut, Narashtra, Lat and Karnata e.g. Pulinda Ashmak Jimut Narrashtr Nivasin: Karnata: Kamboja Ghata (Lata) Dakshinapathvasin: Garuda Purana 1/15/13).

This `Kamboja' thus very well fits somewhere in the South India.

Inscriptions from Mysore from about 1050 AD (ref: EC, VII, SK 118), supply us a list of countries with whom the trading corporations of 'Nanadesa Tisaiya yirattu Ainnurruvar' traded with. The countries listed are Chera, Chola, Pandya, Maleya, Magadha, Kausal, Kosala, Suarashtra, Dhanurashtra, Kambhoja, Gaulla, Lata, Baruvara, Nepals and Parsa. Obviously, seen from the list of these countries, the Kambhoja in this list is not the Kamboja of Yona Gandhara group. The list aalso implies this Kambhoja located somewhere in central or south India.

In the 'Arathshastra' of Braspati, the Kamboja country is stated to be a great country aaand is shown as located adjoining the Dasrana country, near Narbada somewhere in central India. (IHQ., Vol. XXVI-2, 1950, p 127).

MOST IMPORTANTLY, the 'Agni Purana' mentions two southern Kamboj countries, 'Kamboja' and 'Kambhoja' and locates them respectively in the SOUTHERN WESTERN AND SOUTHERN parts of India.

There is also mention of one Kamboja king in line 10-14 of the Chindambram Inscriptions of King Rajinder Chola (1114 AD) in Tamil Nadu. The Kamboja king is said to have made a precious present to king Rajindra Chola per above referred inscription. (ref: E. Hultzsch (ed) Epigraphia IndiacaI, Vol V, 1898-99, pp 105-06, Op. Cit, pp 12, Dr Jiya Lal)

INTERESTINGLY per ANDHRA FOLK LORES, a 'Kambhoja Raja Kathalu' is very popular in that part of the country, which might imply some historical/ethnical connections of the some sections of Andhra people with the ancient Kamboja people from North-west India. The `Kambhoja Raja Katha' (or Kambhoja Raja Kathalu as it is usully called) is balladic story depicting the great times, doings, and achievements of the ferocious and mighty Kamboja king, and is sung by traditional singers on festivals, and important cultural occasions in Andhra Pardesh. This, of course, is very intersting field of investigation and further research about Kamboj history. "Kambhojas are anciently mentioned to live in the REGION OF PUNJAB and there is an echo of a migration to somewhere on the Godavari (Andhra Pardesh). Later from there seafarers and adventurers gave the name to a region of southeast asia --kampuchea or Cambodia" [R. R. Rao..A famed journalist of Andhra Pardesh.]

There is a KAMBOJI/HARI KAMBOJI (also called KAMBHOJI/HARIKAMBHOJI) raga very much popular in the south India since ancient times. According to scholars, the origin of KAMBOJI/KAMBHOJI Raga is attributed to `Kamboja Desha' located in north India. Some scholars ascribe the origin of Kamboja raga to Kambuja (Cambodia/Indo-China) which does not seem to be correct. The Kamboja Raga was prevalent in the Uttarapath region of ancient India even before the onset of AD era.

States Dr S. R. Srinivasa Iyer: "The Kambhoji or Kamboji raga/ragini occupies a great position among the Indian Ragas".

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LITTLE DIGRESSION:

ANCIENT KAMBOJA TRIBE AND THE FAMOUS KAMBOJA RAGA:

ANCIENT EVIDENCE FOR ORIGIN OF KAMBOJA RAGA FROM KAMBOJA TRIBE/ KAMBOJA MAHAJANAPADA:

"Ample evidence is available in ancient Sangeet literature which undoubtedly proves that ancient Kambojas excelled in the field of sangeet or music also. In fact, the republics of north-west had special interest in the art of dance and music. Greek writer, Arrian, reveals to us that all the tribal republics of north-wrest (including the Kambojas) with whom Alexandra had military scuffles were lovers of music and dance.....".(ref: Hindu polity, p 78 by Dr K. P. Jayswal; Invasion of India, by Alexandra the Great, Westminister, 1896, by Dr Mcgrindle; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country 1981, pp 231, Dr J. L. Kamboj)

"....In the list of ancient Indian traditional Ragas, we also find a raga/ragini called Kamboji or Kambhoji......................" (Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country 1981, pp 231)

(A)SEE BELOW ANCIENT EVIDENCE FROM SANGEET ACHARYA MATANGMUNI: (i.e. about origin of Kambhoji Raga from Kambhoja Desha). e.g

Chatu:sawarat prabhuti na maraga (i.e Raga):Shivar Pulinda-Kambhoja-Vanga-Kirat-Bahlika-Andhra-Dravid-Vanadishu paryujayate [ref: Brahad deshi by Sangeet Acharya Matangmuni] [cf: Trivandrum Sanskrit Series, 1928, No VI), p 59].

(B)SEE ANOTHER ANCIENT EVIDENCE FROM SANGEET ACHARYA SOMESHAVARA:

Deshi Ragas like Kambhoji etc have been designated after the names of the countries of their origin. According to Sangeet Acharyya Someshvara, the author of a well known text on musics, Sangeet Ratanavali, the various Deshi Ragas did originate from the names of the respective countries: e.g.

Deshi-Raga........deshnaamsamudhbhaya (ref: Acharya Someshvara, Sangeet Ratnavali)

( C ) SEE YET ANOTHER ANCIENT EVIDENCE FROM SANGEET ACHARYA NARADA:

The celebrated ancient Sangeet Acharya, Narada (7th c AD) also provides similar information to us in his well known classic known as Sangeet Makrand. e.g.

Based on Sangeet Makrand, by Acharya Narada: According to Sangeet Acharya Narda, the prevalent nomenclature of Ragas evolved through three stages. In stage I (stage of dramaturgics), the Ragas were named on the basis of important sawaras. (from sawara Arishabh== > Raga Asharbhi; from sawara Shanj == > the Grama Raga Shanji; from sawara Gandhara == >Raga Gandhari etc ) In the second stage (i.e. Jana stage) , the Ragas were designated after the names of the tribes by whom these Ragas were originated (From Shaka tribe == > Raga Shaktilak & Shakmishrat; from Pulinda tribe== > Pulind Raga; Andhra tribe == > Andhra Raga; Kamboja tribe == > Raga/ Ragini Kamboji/Kambhoji etc). In the third stage( i.e.Janapada stage), the names of the Ragas were nomen-clatured after the place names or the country names of their origin. (from Bengal == > Bangali Raga; from Sindhu ==> Saindhavi; from Kambhoj == > Kamboji/Kambhoji etc ). From above SYSTEM OF NAMING Ragas by Acharya Narada, it is clear that the Kambhoji Raga/Ragini satisfy both the stage second and stage third of Raga nomenclature. (Ref: Sangeet Makrand, by Acharya Narada, Kamboja People and the Country, 1981, p 232; cf Ragas and Raginis, by O. C. Gangoli, Appendix 28, pp 72-77).

(D) SUMMARY OF THE RAGANUBHAVA SESSION ON YADUKULAKAMBHOJI HELD ON 31ST JANUARY 2001:

"Names of some ragas indicate the region of their origin. Examples are Gurjari, Malavi, Kannada Gowla, Gowda Mallar, Sindhubhairavi and some others. Even in one raga, different versions can be found in different regions, as can be visualised from names like Kannada Gurjari, Dravida Gurjari etc. Bharata, our land, comprised 56 CONFEDERATIONS* in days bygone, one of which was the territory called KAMBHOJAI or KAMBHOJA. The raga that originated here was KAMBHOJI. Perhaps, there were variegated versions of this raga - some, with a folk-music overtone like Chenchu Kambhoji. A tribal-group "Erugala", perhaps modified raga Kambhoji to create "Erugala-Kambhoji". T V Subba Rao has mentioned thus, in his writings. This raga is a pointer to that trend that classic tunes led to folk-versions. Subbarama Dikshitar maintained the name Erugala-Kambhoji, in the Sangeeta Sampradaya Pradarsini." (Views of Dr V V Srivatsa)

*refer to text of `Uttarapatha (northern India) Countries of the Bhuvankosha' by Kirfel.

This again suggests a connections between NW Kamboja with the south..[ref: Ragas and Raginis by O. C Gangoli; Brahaddeshi (Trivandrum Sanskrit Series, 1926, no VI), p 59, Kamboja People and the Country, 1981, p 231-233]. The same raga is called Kambodhi/Kamodi in Prakritic language and some Shabads composed in this Kambhoda raga appear in Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji... the Shabad Guru of the Sikhs.

"Some scholars opine that raga Kambhoji was adopted with some variance by the "Erugala" tribe, from which the name "Erugala-Kambhoji" emerged. Subbarama Dikshitar has only used this name. Some may have found the tribal prefix unsuitable and have ventured to Sanskritise or classicise the name, which manifested as Yadukula-Kambhoji." (DR. V V Srivatsava).

Govindacharya, has used the name "Yadukulakambhoji" in the Sangeeta Saramrita, which shows that the current name was established in the pre-Trinity era. Thus, we can assume that the Yadukul Kamboji raga originated in 16th - 17th century AD and was widely accepted in the latter half of the 17th century AD.

BELOW ARE SOME REFERENCES ABOUT KAMBOJA/KAMBOJI RAGA/RAGINI FROM SHRI GURU GRANTH SAHIB JI, THE BIBLE OF THE SIKH FAITH: (Note the prakritized forms of Kamboja or Kambhoja raga in SGGS)

(page 1430-10, mwlw, -) gaavahi saras basant kAMODAA.|| and the thrilling songs of Basant and KAMODAA|| (i.e. Kamodaa==Prikritic of Kamboja)

(page 1430-11, mwlw, -) KAAMODEE a-o goojree sang deepak kay thaap. ||1|| KAAMODEE and Goojaree accompany Deepak. ||1|| (i.e. Kaamodee ==Prakritic of Kamboji/Kaamboji)

[For more details on Kamboja connection with Kamboja/Kamboja Raga, please also see Ancient Kamboja People and the Country, p 231-234, by Dr J. L. Kamboj].

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LET US RESUME MAIN TOPIC:

As stated else where, numerous sub-castes matching with those of modern northern Indian Kambojas are also found among the people of Gujrat/Maharashtra. (Dhote, Patnayak, Vinayak, Gandhi, Bhat, Sarang, Chandi, Chandne, Soi, Nagpal etc.). One researcher, Kirpal Singh suggests that numerous sub-castes matching with those of modern Kambojs of Punjab, Haryan and UP are also found in South India. All this might suggest some connections of Uttarapatha Kambojas with south India also.

One researcher scholar (Prof Avadh Bihari Lal Avasthi) has commented in his critical study of the `Garuda Purana' in these words: "We find Kambhi, Kamm, Kumbhi etc castes in South India. There is also a famous city Koimb-toor. Possibly, there has been a Kamboj country in South also" (ref: Garuda Purana, Aik Adhyan p 28).

From all above, it appears conceivable that Uttarapatha Kambojas (i.e from Kamboja country in NE Afghanistan and Param Kamboja country in Badakshan/Pamir/Tajikstan regions of Central Asia) must have migrated to the south-west India (Gujrat/Kathiwad) and from there to possibly also to south India in the earlier times. I do not know much about the south Indian traditions. But the Andhra traditions which one very reliable journalist has pointed out [KAMBHOJA RAJA KATHA]' might point towards some definite historical happening in remote past, connected with these ancient people from Central Asia. Indian history is very incomplete yet. Who knows what is shrouded in the mist of antiquity!

The actual contents of the Kamboja Raja Katha need to be examined and researched critically. The contents of this balladic `Kamboja Raja Katha' which is very popular in Andhra could hold some important clues if critically examined in the light of the traditions of Uttarapatha Kambojas, whose descendents we still find abundantly in north India. It could be an area of great interest indeed!.

KAMBOJAS IN SRI LANKA:

From Gujrat/Kathiawad OR Centra/Southern India, some clans of Kambojas seem to have migrated to Sri Lanka island also. The ethnic name Kaboja/Kamboja stands mentioned as a most prominent ethnic group in 6 or 7 epigraphic inscriptions in Sri Lanka.(Archaeological survey of Ceylon, Inscriptions Register No 1049, 1050, 316, 1118 for Kaboja. Epigraphicia Zeylanica Vol II p 353 for Kamboja, Kambojdin etc). e.g. see below the text from these two inscriptions:

See our posting on "ANCIENT KAMBOJA IN SAURASHTRA/GUJARAT AND SRI LANKA" for further details.

THE FOLLOWING TEXT IS FROM VARIOUS EPIGRAPHIC/CAVE INSCRIPTIONS AS FOUND FROM SRILANKA DURING 19th/20th CENTURY BY EROPEAN RESEARCHERS.

INSCRIPTION REGISTER No 1316.

`Gote Kabojhiana Pramuka gopalah barya upashika chitya lenhai shagash'. (ref. Archaeological Survey of Ceylon)

b. INSCRIPTION REGISTER No 1118 `Kabojihia mahapugyana manpadashaney agal anagat chatudish shagash' (ref. Archaeological Survey of Ceylon.)

c. INSCRIPTION REGISTER No 1149 Kabojha............Gamik (ref. Archaeological Survey of Ceylon)

INSCRIPTION REGISTER No 1150 d. Kabojha...........Gamik (ref. Archaeological Survey of Ceylon)

The Historian have identified this term Kaboja appearing numerously in ancient Sri Lanka cave inscriptions as the prakritic/old Sinhala variant of the well known Sanskritic term Kamboja.

FEW REFERENCES

(Archaological Survey of Ceylone Inscriptions, History of Celone Vol I, Part I Dr S. Paranavitana, The People of the Lion...Sinhala Identity and Ideology in History and philosophy by Dr R. A. L. H. Gunawardana, The People of trhe Lion: Ethnic Identity by K. N. O. Dharmadasa, Kambojas in Sri Lanka by Dr Jya Lal in Kamboja People and the Country, Epigraphia Zelonica by Don Martino De Zilva Wickermsinghe, Dr E. Muller JRAS., XV., p, 171;also ref to researches of Dr Burros , History of Indian Art and Eastern Architecture pp 665-666 by Sir Dr J. Fergusson etc).

e. Furthermore, one of the 12 Epigraphic inscriptions, discovered in 1887 by Dr S. M. Burros mentions KAMBOJA VASSALA (i.e Kamboja Dawara/or Kamboja gate). This is the name of the main gate of the Vishnu Temple located in Polonaruva, Sri lanka built by great king Kalingalekshar Bahu Vir Raj Nishankmal Apritimal Chakravorty (Jouranl of Ceylone Branch of Royal Asiatiac Society (JCBBRAS), Vol X., X No 34, 1887, pp 64-67).

f. Yet another medieval age reference to the presence of Kamboja people in Sri Lanka has been found in an another epigraphic inscription ( No 13) found in Anuradhapura in Ruvanveki Dagba in Sri Lanka (Don Martino de Zilva Wickeremsinghe, Epigraphicia Zeylanka, Vol II., Part I & II., p 70-83; Rys David, JRAS. Vol VII., p 187, p 353f; Muller. E. AIC., No 145; JRAS., Vol XV., 1914, pp 170-71).

See below the wording of this inscription (No 13) is Sanskritic Sinhalese.

"Nuvarat hatpsin sat gavak pamanh tan haam satun no narya hakhya abhaya do ber lava dolos meh va tan masut abhaya de KAMBODEEN ran pili aadibhu kamti vastu de paksheen no badan nyayen samat kot abhaya dee" (Epigraphia Zelanka Vol II., p 80).

The famous scholars like Don Martino de Zilva, Wickermsinghe, Burrows etc have described /identified these KAMBODEEN (Kamboja) people of Medieval era Sri Lanka as the Moslem converts of the Ancient Kambojas who during 8/9 c AD, had embraced Islaam and used to trade horses along the from Persian gulf to Sri Lanka including India. Burrows has relied on the classic researches of Dr Sir J. Fergusson's researches of 19th c era in resolving the issue of these Kambodeen people of Sri Lanka.

According to these scholars, Kambojdeen (=Kamboja) people mentioned in mediaeval Sri Lankan inscriptions belong to the famous Aramaic Gambua (=Kamboja) people, [=whom the invesigator Langdan has connected and identified with Kambojas which probably is true and, which has further been accepted by scholars like Muller, Burrow and Wickermsinghe etc ] who, during middle ages, had conquered the east region of river Tigris along the gulf of Persia during middle ages. (Epigraphic Zeylanika Vol II, No 13, p 76 cf E. Muller JRAS XV., p 171). These Aramaic Kambojas find prominent mention in Assarhadan's historical travelogues (688-91 AD). They have also found mention in the writings of mediaval age Moslem writers.

The only other ethnic groups mentioned in these ancient Sinhala inscriptions are Dameda (Dravid---Tamil) only three times, Merya (Mauryas), Milaka/Mleca (Mlechcha), Murida (Murunda=Kushna?) and Jhavaka each' once only. Interestingly, no mention of the term "Sinhala" is found in any of these ancient inscriptions, whatsoever!!!!!!!.

ANCIENT KAMBOJAS AND KAMBUJA (INDO-CHINA):

And, then we also note echoes of the same Kamboja in the Further India i.e Kambujia, Kampuchea or Cambodia also after about 5/6th c AD. Many scholars suggest that these andventurer and sea farer Kambojas of Sri Lanka might have further ventured into Kambujas of Indo China around 4/5c AD. (Sir James Fergusson, History of Indian and Eastern Culture, p 665-666). But numerous other scholars suppose that the Kambojas who had founded the Kambuja kingdom in Indo-China had come from Kashmir/Pamis, via land route, from behind the Himalyans. (Dr P. C. Bagchi, Dr Jiya Lal, dR Buddha Parkash and even Sir James Fergusson etc, as an alternative to sea route).

For full details, please refer to "INDIAN KAMBOJA PRINCES RULE IN KAMBODIA (KAMBUJA)

SUMMARY OF OUR RESULTS:

The modern research on Indology shows:

(1)Two Kamboja countries (KAMBOJA/PARAM KAMBOJA in NW India (per MBH) [AS DEMONSTRATED IN EARLIER POSTINGS].

(2) One KAMBOJA country East India, sandwitched between ASSAM/ Bengal and Burma(see Brahma Purana, 53/16) [AS DEMONSTRATED IN EARLIER POSTINGS].

(3) We have echoes of a KAMBOJA/KAMBHOJA country in south India also (per Agni Purana), [See our posting on "ANCIENT KAMBOJA IN SAURASHTRA/GUJARAT AND SRI LANKA]

(4) We have footprints of KAMBOJAS in Gujrat/Saurashtra also as per above cited numerous references. [See our posting on "ANCIENT KAMBOJA IN SAURASHTRA/GUJARAT AND SRI LANKA]

(5). We have strong epigraphic evidence of KAMBOJA PRINCIPALITY in principalities in Sri Lanka since 3/2n c BC. The Epigraphic inscriptions show a `very predominant position of Kambojas' (more than any other ethnic group) in Sri Lankan political/social/commercial setting. Interestingly, no mention whatsoever of the term `Sinhala' is found in any of these cave inscriptions, while name Kaboja/or Kamboja finds the `highest mention' followed by Daemeda (or Tamil) in these inscriptions. This obviously proves that the Kambojas were undoubtedly the most prominent and most predominant ethnic people in Sri Lanka around 4/3c BC. Later on, when more Kambojas migrated to Sri Lanka after or around AD, they probably carried the name `Sinha' by virtue of their assiciation with Junagad/Saurasgtera region (land of the lions....Sinh or Singh) or else by virtue of their association with Hingur, Sinhore (of Sindhu/Gujarat) or Sinhapura (of north-weest India, which was obviously a neighboring land to ancient Kamboja...MBH evidence 2/27/20-23) and had therefore imparted this totem or nickname `Sinha' (=Lion) to the island which they thenceforth occupied.

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